Human Rights in Indian Constitution

Constitution of India:


We the People of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a (Sovereign Socialist, Secular Democratic Republic) and to secure to its entire citizen:
Justice, social, economic and political;
Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
Equality of status and opportunity; and to promote among them all
Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the (unity and integrity of the Nation)
In our constituent assembly this twenty-sixth day of November 1949,
Do hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this constitution.

Fundamental Rights:

Articles of the Constitution Guaranteeing Human Rights:

Rights to Equality:

Article 14. Equality before Law
Article 15. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
Article 16. Equality before opportunity in matters of public employment.
Article 17. Abolition of Un-touchability.
Article 18. Abolition of Titles

Rights to Freedom:

Article 19. Protection of Certain rights regarding freedom of speech etc.,
Article 20. Protection in respect of Conviction for offences.
Article 21. Protection of life and personal Liberty.
Article 22. Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.

Rights against Exploitation:

Article 23. Prohibition of Traffic in Human beings and forced labour.
Article 24. Prohibition of employment of Children in factories etc.,

Rights to Freedom of Religion:

Article 25. Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.
Article 26. Freedom to manage religious affairs.
Article 27. Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
Article 28. Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain education institution.

Cultural and Educational Rights:

•  Article 29. Protection of interests of minorities.
• Article 30. Rights of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.

Savings of certain Laws:

Article 31A. Saving of laws providing for acquisition of estates etc.,
Article 31B. Validation of certain Acts and Regulations.
Article 31C. Saving of Laws giving effect to certain to certain directive principles.
Article 31D. (Repeated)

Rights of Constitutional Remedies:

Article 32. Remedies for enforcement of Rights conferred by this part.
Article 32A. (Repeated)
Article 33. Power of Parliament to modify the Rights conferred by this part in their application to forces etc.,
Article 34. Restriction on Rights conferred by this while martial law is in force in any area.
Article 35. Legislation to give effect to the provision of this part.

Part IV: Directive Principles of State Policy:

Article 36. Definition
Article 37. Application of the Principles contained in this part.
Article 38. State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people.
Article 39. Certain principles of policy to be followed by the state.
Article 39A. Equal justice and free legal Aid.
Article 40. Organisation of village Panchayat.
Article 41. Right to Work to education and to public assistance in certain cases.
Article 42. Provision for just and humane condition of work and maternity relief.
Article 43. Living wage etc for workers.
Article 43A. Participation of workers in managements of industries.
Article 44. Uniform civil code for the citizens.
Article 45. Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
Article 46. Promotion of education and economic interest of scheduled Tribe and other weaker sections.
Article 47. Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.
Article 48. Organization of agriculture and animal husbandry.
Article 48A. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life.
Article 49. Protection of monuments and places and objectives of national importance.
Article 50. Separation of judiciary from executive
Article 51. Promotion of international peace and security.
Article 51A: It shall be the duty of every citizen of India
a. To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideal and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem.
b. To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.
c. To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
d. To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
e. To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices and derogatory to the dignity of women.
f. To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
g. To protest and improve the natural environment including forest, lakes, rivers and wild life and to have compassion for living creatures.
h. To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
i. To safeguard public property and to abjure violence;

To strive toward excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of Endeavour and achievement

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